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This project provides the musculoskeletal model of the cat hindlimb. A three-dimensional model of the cat hindlimb skeleton was created using CT images obtained from one male adult cat. The two-dimensional CT images were converted into a three-dimensional


This project provides the musculoskeletal model of the cat hindlimb. A three-dimensional model of the cat hindlimb skeleton was created using CT images obtained from one male adult cat. The two-dimensional CT images were converted into a three-dimensional model using an image processing software package called 3D Doctor (Able Software Corp., USA). The model of the cat hindlimb consisted of five rigid bodies – pelvis, thigh, shank, foot, and the digits – and 13 DOF. The pelvis was represented as a 6-DOF free joint, the hip as a 3-DOF ball-and-socket joint, the knee as a 1-DOF hinge joint, the ankle as a 2-DOF universal joint, and the metatarsophalangeal joint as a 1-DOF hinge joint. Muscle origin and insertion sites were determined using published anatomical records. Via points and wrapping surfaces were added to provide an anatomically realistic path for each muscle-tendon unit (MTU).
Physiological parameters for the model of muscle-tendon actuation (i.e., peak isometric muscle force and the corresponding optimal muscle-fiber length and pennation angle as well as tendon slack length) were obtained from the literature.
Associated publication includes more detail regarding modeling process and results of the study.


If you use this study for your work, please cite the following publication:

Karabulut, D., Dogru, S.C., Lin, Y.C., Pandy, M.G., Herzog, W., Arslan. Y.Z, 2020, "Direct Validation of Model Predicted Muscle Forces in the Cat Hindlimb During Locomotion," ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 142(5).

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