Primary Publication
C. Pizzolato, M. Reggiani, L. Modenese & D. G. Lloyd (2016): Real-time inverse kinematics and inverse dynamics for lower limb applications using OpenSim, Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, DOI: 10.1080/10255842.2016.1240789 (2016)  View

Real-time estimation of joint angles and moments can be used for rapid evaluation in clinical, sport, and rehabilitation contexts. However, real-time calculation of kinematics and kinetics is currently based on approximate solutions or generic anatomical models. We present a real-time system based on OpenSim solving inverse kinematics and dynamics without simplifications at 2000 frame per seconds with less than 31.5 ms of delay. We describe the software architecture, sensitivity analyses to minimise delays and errors, and compare offline and real-time results. This system has the potential to strongly impact current rehabilitation practices enabling the use of personalised musculoskeletal models in real-time.