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Provide models and simulations to study the nonimpaired wrist and the wrist following surgical salvage procedures (i.e., surgeries used to treat osteoarthritis). Summarize experimental moment arm data for the primary wrist and extrinsic thumb muscles.

License: Limited Data PRC Models, Limited Data SE4CF Models, Wrist & Thumb Moment Arm Data

This work strives to overcome the current challenges preventing the efficient development of surgical models and questions the conventional research approach that requires extensive experimental studies before using surgical simulations to examine questions of clinical interest. Notably, we develop models of two wrist surgeries based on the extremely limited quantitative data available in the literature. We then use these models to predict how surgery influences muscle moment arms. To evaluate the validity of our simulation-based prediction of moment arms, we experimentally measured moment arms in cadaveric specimens. Details on the modeling assumptions, simulations to predict moment arms, and experimental moment arm study are described in the cited publication.

Please respect the time and effort of the original developers by reading the accompanying publications and citing the appropriate references when benefiting from or building upon this work.

Please refer to the Downloads page for our release of (1) PRC models based on limited data, (2) SE4CF models based on limited data, and (3) experimental moment arm data of the nonimpaired and surgically salvaged wrist. All currently available models were developed in SIMM. In the near future, we will release dynamic wrist models of the nonimpaired and surgically salvaged wrist in OpenSim.


Models of the surgically salvaged wrist that are based on extremely limited data and many assumptions are provided. The surgically salvaged wrist models represent the wrist following proximal row carpectomy (PRC) and scaphoid-excision four-corner fusion (SE4CF). These models were used, as described in the provided citation, to predict wrist muscle moment arms. Experimental moment arm data for the primary wrist and extrinsic thumb models is also provided. These data were used for validation of the model-based moment arm predictions.

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