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A shoulder model with an accurate scapulothoracic joint and includes scapular muscles to drive its motion. The model can be used to compute the work done by the thoracoscapular muscles during shrugging and any arm elevation task.

License: FrontiersPubMaterials

We developed a shoulder model with an accurate scapulothoracic joint and includes scapular muscles to drive its motion. We used the model to compute the work done by the thoracoscapular muscles during shrugging and arm elevation. We found that the bulk of the work done in upper-extremity tasks is performed by the largest muscles of the shoulder: trapezius, deltoids, pectoralis major, and serratus-anterior. Trapezius and serratus anterior prove to be important synergists in performing upward-rotation of the scapula. We show that the large thoracoscapular muscles do more work than glenohumeral muscles during arm-elevation tasks. The model, experimental data and simulation results are available herein.

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