For detailed tissue testing protocol evaluation and all previous attempts, check /ProtocolEvaluation

Protocol evaluation and repeatability assessment summary

Repeatability tests done on two rubber samples, Unconfined compression test (1000 preconditioning cycles, ramp before and after preconditioning, 15% max strain @ 20%/s, 30 min hold, 5mm diameter sample): oks00TR5-rubber-rubber1-01_04-repeatability.pdf Additional 4 repeatability tests done for rubber sample 1 from previous set,unconfined compression test oks00TR5-rubber-01_08-repeatability.pdf Rubber repeatability at lower strain rates oks00TR5-rubber2-01-04-repeatability.pdf Rubber sample 3, unconfined compression rubber3-01_04-repeatability.pdf Rubber sample 3, unconfined compression, 8 tests rubber3_01_08-repeatability.pdf

Tissue

Unconfined compression

Confined compression

Tension

Cartilage

Attempt with higher preconditioning strain and finding reference dimension again after preconditioning,1000 preconditioning cycles Reference specifications: Note: hold time after each 5% strain is 3min 10sec. Specifications/ExperimentationTissueMechanics Revision as of Oct 13,2016 Data: Test1 Test2 Test3 Summary: oks00TR2-TBC-LCXX-01-01_02_03-repeatability.pdf Preconditioning with 15% strain ramp load-unload Sample: oks00TR4-FMC-MCXX-01-01.pdf Test with updated preconditioning protocol, 78 yr old specimen Summary: oks00TR5-FMC-MCXX-01-01-to-08-repeatability.pdf Neighboring samples to previous test sample tested with previous preconditioning protocol Summary: oks00TR5-FMC-MCXX-02-01_02-and-03-01_02-repeatability.pdf 48 yr old specimen, no ramp before-after preconditioning oks00TR5-TBC-MCXX-01-01_04-repeatability.pdf Neighboring sample to previous sample, used PBS instead of saline oks00TR5-TBC-MCXX-02-01_03-repeatability.pdf Same sample 2 more tests oks00TR6-TBC-MCXX-02-01_05-repeatability.pdf Two neighboring samples tested over a week, no load-unload ramps before/after preconditioning oks00TR6-TBC-MCXX-multiple_day_repeatibility.pdf Two neighboring samples tested over a week, load-unload ramps before/after preconditioning oks00TR6-TBC-LCXX-multiple_day_repeatibility.pdf Effect of multiple freeze-thaw cycles and using 300 micron buffer for starting preconditioning and stress relaxation oks00TR6-TBC-MCXX-05-multiday-repeatability-freezethaw.pdf Tests using 300 micron buffer, multi-day,48 yr old specimenoks00TR6-FMC-ACXX-01-multiday-repeatability.pdf Tests using 300 micron buffer, multi-day,78 yr old specimen oks00TR5-FMC-ACXX-01-multiday-repeatability.pdf Week long tests for all test types, 48 yr old specimen oks00TR6-FMC-LP-cc-uc-tension.pdf 2 tests with 2 weeks between them, 48 yr old specimen oks00TR6-FMC-ACXX-02-2week-repeatability.pdf multiday confined and unconfined tests to assess effect of rest times oks00TR6-FMC-MPXX-02-uc-cc-repeatability.pdf

Attempt with higher preconditioning strain and finding reference dimension again after preconditioning,1000 preconditioning cycles Reference specifications: Note: hold time after each 5% strain is 3min 10sec. Specifications/ExperimentationTissueMechanics Revision as of Oct 13,2016 Data: Test1 Test2 Test3 Summary: oks00TR2-FMC-LCXX-02-01_02_03-repeatability.pdf Tests using 300 micron buffer, multi-day,48 yr old specimenoks00TR6-FMC-LAXX-01-multiday-repeatability.pdf Indentation (confined compression set up without filter,48 yr old specimen) oks00TR6-FMC-LPXX-02-multiday-repeatability.pdf Attempt with 3mm thick filter, 48 yr old specimenoks00TR6-FMC-MPXX-01-multiday-repeatability.pdf Attempt with 3mm thick filter, 78 yr old specimen oks00TR5-TBC-LCXX-01-multiday-repeatability.pdf 78 yr old specimen, neighboring sample oks00TR5-TBC-LCXX-02-multiday-repeatability.pdf

Attempt with higher preconditioning strain and finding reference dimension again after preconditioning Reference specifications: Note: hold time after each 5% strain is 3min 10sec. Specifications/ExperimentationTissueMechanics Revision as of Sept 21,2016 Data: Test1 Test2 Test3 Summary: oks00TR2-FMC-MCuX-01-01_02_03-repeatability.pdf Repeatability with higher preconditioning cycles: Reference specifications: Note: hold time after each 5% strain is 3min 10sec. 1000 preconditioning cycles. Specifications/ExperimentationTissueMechanics Revision as of Sept 21,2016 Data: Test1 Test2 Test3 Summary: oks00TR2-FMC-MCuX-02-01_02_03-repeatability.pdf Previous sample tested again after freezing and thawing: Summary: oks00TR2-FMC-MCuX-02-01_04-repeatability.pdf Another repeatability test for confirmation: Summary oks00TR2-FMC-MCuX-03-01_02-repeatability.pdf Tests using 300 micron buffer, multi-day, ramp load-unload in preconditioning sequence, 48 yr old specimen oks00TR6-FMC-LCuX-01-multiday-repeatability.pdf Another set using 300 micron buffer, multi-day, ramp load-unload in preconditioning sequence, 48 yr old specimen oks00TR6-FMC-LPuX-01-multiday-repeatability.pdf Test set using 300 micron buffer, multi-day, ramp load-unload in preconditioning sequence, 78yr old specimen oks00TR5-FMC-LCuX-01-multiday-repeatability.pdf

Meniscus

Attempt with higher preconditioning strain and finding reference dimension again after preconditioning,1000 preconditioning cycles Reference specifications: Note: hold time after each 5% strain is 3min 10sec. Specifications/ExperimentationTissueMechanics Revision as of Oct 13,2016 Data: Test1 Test2 Test3 Summary: oks00TR2-MNS-MPXX-01-01_02_03-repeatability.pdf Attempt with 5-15% strain used for preconditioning, 4 tests done over 2 days with at least 4 hours between tests Summary: oks00TR3-MNS-CXXX-01-01_02_03_04-repeatability.pdf 3 tests done over 3 days while minimizing swelling of sample Summary:oks00TR3-MNS-MPXX-02-01_02_03-repeatability.pdf 2 tests done with 3 hours between test. For test 2 starting position for preconditioning was kept same as test1 Summary: oks00TR3-MNS-MPXX-03-01_02-repeatability.pdf Test with manually cut rectangular sample instead of cylindrical punched sample Summary:oks00TR3-MNS-LPXX-01-01_02-repeatability.pdf Test with manually cut rectangular sample, thickness measured between tests Summary:oks00TR3-MNS-LPXX-02-01_02-repeatability.pdf Manually cut rectangular sample, 5 tests done over a week oks00TR6-MNS-LPXX-01-multiday-repeatability.pdf Rectangular sample, 3 day repeatability, 48 yr old specimen oks00TR6-MNS-LPXX-03-01_03-multiday-repeatability.pdf

Attempt with higher preconditioning strain and finding reference dimension again after preconditioning,1000 preconditioning cycles Reference specifications: Note: hold time after each 5% strain is 3min 10sec. Specifications/ExperimentationTissueMechanics Revision as of Oct 13,2016 Data: Test1 Test2 Test3 Summary: oks00TR2-MNS-MPXX-02-01_02_03-repeatability.pdf Reproduction of study done by Andrews et al (2015) Summary: oks00TR3-MNS-MAXX-03-01-02-andrews.pdf

Attempt with higher preconditioning strain and finding reference dimension again after preconditioning Reference specifications: Note: hold time after each 5% strain is 3min 10sec. Specifications/ExperimentationTissueMechanics Revision as of Sept 21,2016 Data: Test2 Test3 Test4 Summary: oks00TR2-MNS-MCuX-03-02_03_04-repeatability.pdf Repeatability with higher preconditioning cycles: Reference specifications: Note: hold time after each 5% strain is 3min 10sec.1000 preconditioning cycles. Specifications/ExperimentationTissueMechanics Revision as of Sept 21,2016 Data: Test1 Test2 Test3 Summary: oks00TR2-MNS-MCuX-04-01_02_03-repeatability.pdf

Tendon

N/A

N/A

Attempt with higher preconditioning strain and finding reference dimension again after preconditioning,1000 preconditioning cycles, 6% max strain Reference specifications: Note: hold time after each 5% strain is 3min 10sec. Specifications/ExperimentationTissueMechanics Revision as of Oct 24,2016 Data: Test1 Test2 Test3 Summary: oks00TR2-QAT-CXXX-01-01_02_03-repeatability.pdf Failure test to determine maximum strain for stress relaxation test Summary:oks00TR2-QAT-CXXX-02-01-failure.pdf Similar to previous attempt except adhesive and sand paper were used with grips Summary: oks00TR2-QAT-CXXX-03-01_02_03-repeatability.pdf Wet cotton gauze and adhesive used for gripping Summary: oks00TR2-QAT-CXXX-05-01_02_03-repeatability.pdf Maximum strain was reduced from 6% to 4.5% Summary: oks00TR2-QAT-CXXX-06-01_02_03-repeatability.pdf Repeated previous test Summary: oks00TR2-QAT-CXXX-08-01_02_03-repeatability.pdf Test with 4.5% max strain and 10%/s strain rate Summary: oks00TR2-QAT-CXXX-09-01_02_03-repeatability.pdf 4.5% mx strain, 10%/s strain rate, 2000 preconditioning cycles Summary: oks00TR2-QAT-CXXX-10_01_02_03-repeatability.pdf

Ligament

N/A

N/A

Attempt with higher preconditioning strain and finding reference dimension again after preconditioning,1000 preconditioning cycles Reference specifications: Note: hold time after each 5% strain is 3min 10sec. Specifications/ExperimentationTissueMechanics Revision as of Oct 24,2016 Data: Test1 Test2 Test3 Summary: oks00TR2-PCL-CXXX-01-01_02_03-repeatability.pdf

Target Outcome

Material behavior for all primary and secondary tissues necessary for required representative constitutive models.

Prerequisites

Infrastructure

For more details see Infrastructure/ExperimentationMechanics.

Previous Protocols

For more details see Specifications/Specimens.

For more details see Specifications/SpecimenPreparation.

For more details see Specifications/ExperimentationAnatomicalImaging

For more details see Specifications/ExperimentationJointMechanics

Tissue types

Primary tissues

Cartilage

1. Medial femoral condyle

2. Lateral femoral condyle

3. Medial tibial plateau

4. Lateral tibial plateau

5. Trochlear groove

6. Patella

Meniscus

1. Medial meniscus

2. Lateral meniscus

Ligaments

1. Anterior cruciate ligament

2. Posterior cruciate ligament

3. Lateral collateral ligament

4. Medial collateral ligament

5. Patellar ligament

Tendon

1. Quadriceps tendon

Secondary tissues

  1. Medial Capsule
  2. Lateral Capsule
  3. Medial patellofemoral ligament
  4. Transverse ligament

Protocols

Note: Maintain a readme file in each specimen data folder (both Mach1 and optical thickness measurement system) with all the relevant notes (dimensions, type of test, any other test specific information etc)

Ligaments and tendon

Experiment Conditions

Multi-step tensile stress-relaxation test supported by video data to characterize viscoelastic behaviour of the samples.

Measurements

Operating Procedures

Sample preparation

Thickness measurement

Note: Use appropriate file naming convention to name the image file (.jpg). This will automatically reflect in the result .xml and .png files.

Width measurement

Test set up

Tensile test

Testing

Note: The force/displacement data should be acquired at 2.5 kHz and the video data at 10Hz (video data obtained only for stress relaxation)

Tensile test

1. Determination of reference length

2. Preconditioning

3. Determination of reference length

4. Stress Relaxation

Note:

Data analysis

Sample removal and storage

Data storage

Cartilage

Experiment Conditions

Multi-step tensile stress-relaxation test supported by video data (for tensile tests) to characterize viscoelastic behaviour of the samples.

Measurements

Force-displacement data (unfiltered @ 2.5kHz Hz unless downsampled) Video data (RAW format, 640x480 @ 10 Hz unless downsampled)

Operating Procedures

Sample preparation

Thickness measurement

Width measurement

Test set up

Confined Compression test

Unconfined compression test

Tensile test

Testing

Compression test (confined and unconfined)

1. Determination of reference thickness

2. Preconditioning

NOTE: Check the preconditioning data before proceeding with the stress relaxation test. If the preconditioning data is not satisfactory, try to assess the cause. Usually it is specimen non uniformity for compression samples or the test set up may have a lose component. If after these the reason is not certain, and test cannot be repeated the same day/ next day, freeze the sample until the issues can be resolved.

3. Determination of reference thickness

4. Stress Relaxation

Tensile test

1. Determination of reference length

2. Preconditioning

NOTE: Check the preconditioning data before proceeding with the stress relaxation test. If the preconditioning data is not satisfactory, try to assess the cause. Usually it is the grips for tensile samples or the test set up may have a lose component. If after these the reason is not certain, and test cannot be repeated the same day/ next day, freeze the sample until the issues can be resolved.

3. Determination of reference length

4. Stress Relaxation

Note: Make sure for each step of the test sequences the location of file is appropriately selected.

Data analysis (All tests)

Sample removal and storage (All tests)

Once the test is complete, remove the sample carefully from the system, wrap in saline soaked paper towel, place in an appropriately named ziplock bag, and store in the freezer in BioRobotics lab.

Data storage (All tests)

Transfer all collected data immediately to Midas (local storage at Cleveland Clinic).

Menisci

Experiment Conditions

Multi-step tensile stress-relaxation test supported by video data (for tensile tests) to characterize viscoelastic behaviour of the samples.

Measurements

Force-displacement data (unfiltered @ 2.5 kHz unless downsampled) Video data (RAW format, 640x480 @ 10 Hz unless downsampled)

Operating Procedures

Sample preparation

Thickness measurement

Width measurement

Test set up

Confined Compression test

Unconfined compression test

Tensile test

Testing

Compression test (confined and unconfined)

1. Determination of reference thickness

2. Preconditioning

3. Determination of reference thickness

4. Stress Relaxation

Tensile test

1. Determination of reference length

2. Preconditioning

3. Determination of reference length

4. Stress Relaxation

Note: Make sure for each step of the test sequences the location of file is appropriately selected.

Data analysis (All tests)

Sample removal and storage (All tests)

Once the test is complete, remove the sample carefully from the system, wrap in saline soaked paper towel, place in an appropriately named ziplock bag, and store in the freezer in BioRobotics lab.

Data storage (All tests)

Transfer all collected data immediately to Midas (local storage at Cleveland Clinic).


Mach-1 limitations and desired features

System limitation: Acceleration/deceleration times too long and affect tissue relaxation behavior. Solution: Software update by Biomomentum Inc. to reduce accleration/deceleration times (version 4.3.1.9).

System test: Tests run using a foam sample (unconfined compression). 5% strain applied at 100%/s assuming 1mm, 2mm, 5mm and 12mm.

Mach-1-v-4.3.1.9-test.pdf


Testing protocol feasibility assessment and related Mach-1 parameter tuning


References

Cartilage

Meniscus

Ligaments

Tendons

Other

1. Seitz, Andreas Martin, Fabio Galbusera, Carina Krais, Anita Ignatius, and Lutz Dürselen. “Stress-relaxation Response of Human Menisci Under Confined Compression Conditions.” Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials 26 (October 2013): 68–80. doi:10.1016/j.jmbbm.2013.05.027. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S175161611300204X

2. Korhonen RK1, Laasanen MS, Töyräs J, Rieppo J, Hirvonen J, Helminen HJ, Jurvelin JS. "Comparison of the equilibrium response of articular cartilage in unconfined compression, confined compression and indentation." Journal of Biomechanics 2002 Jul;35(7):903-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12052392

3. Shaokoon Cheng, Elizabeth C. Clarke, Lynne E. Bilston. "The effects of preconditioning strain on measured tissue properties." ournal of Biomechanics 42 (2009) 1360–1362. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19394022

4. Mija Lee, William Hyman. "Modeling of failure mode in knee ligaments depending on the strain rate." BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2002; 3: 3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC65677

5. Duenwald SE1, Vanderby R Jr, Lakes RS. "Stress relaxation and recovery in tendon and ligament: Experiment and modeling." Biorheology. 2010;47(1):1-14. doi: 10.3233/BIR-2010-0559. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20448294

6. Subrata Pal. "Mechanical Properties of Biological Materials." Design of Artificial Human Joints & Organs 2014, pp 23-40. http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-1-4614-6255-2_2


Specifications/ExperimentationTissueMechanics (last edited 2019-03-25 19:33:36 by owings)