Geography of use
London Lower Limb Model
Publication Overview
Modenese, L., Phillips, A. T. M. and Bull, A. M. J., An open source lower limb model: Hip joint validation. Journal of Biomechanics 44, 2185-2193. (2011) Abstract Publication

Description: The London Lower Limb Model model is based on one of the most recent anatomical dataset published in the literature (Klein Horsman, 2007). All the data used in the model were originally collected on a single cadaver in order to ensure consistence between geometrical data, joint kinematics and muscle contraction parameters.
Compared to other models available in the literature the number of actuators representing every muscle was chosen through a mechanical criterion (Van der Helm and Veenbaas, 1991). The model includes 163 muscle actuators, representative of 38 muscles.

(Video background from OpenSim 3D World Objects Library, https://simtk.org/home/simgym).

A new version of the model is about to be released and will allow the study of complex full body kinematics including neck and upper extremities.

Available Downloads and Their Potential Uses: The lower limb model described in the publication is available for download. This model can be used to estimate muscle and hip contact forces during daily living activities. Only static optimization simulations are possible at this stage of development.

Purpose/Synopsis: The aim of this project is to provide a reliable model to estimate muscle and joint reaction forces related to daily life and sport tasks.

Audience: The model is expected to be of interest for any researcher interested in force estimation for lower limb muscles during daily tasks and sport tasks.

Long Term Goals and Related Uses: A first goal of the project is to make available for the biomechanical community a model based on a new anatomical dataset with respect to the one described by Delp et al. (1990) and improved by Arnold et al. (2009).
The model is supposed to be used in a pipeline directed from experimental recorded kinematics and kinetics towards subject specific finite element models of the pelvis and the femur.
At the initial stage of development the lower limb model can be used for static optimization analyses only. The intention is to further develop the model in order to allow the users to run more advanced analyse tools like computed muscle control and forward dynamic simulations.
Ideally other researchers could improve it and extend the range of activities and analyses it could be applied to.

Ontology Classification: Modeling_and_Simulation
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Keywords: muscle force prediction, muscle force validation, musculoskeletal biomechanics, Musculoskeletal Modeling
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