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This project provides a set of different models designed to be used to estimate cervical spine loading and investigate cervical spine injury mechanisms.

License: MASI - Healthy Subject, Rugby Model

This project provides the following models:

1) MASI: full body model for the analysis of cervical spine loading during a various set of activities. The MASI is an in-silico representation of a healthy subject, and includes:
a) a custom joint that allows scapula and clavicle coupled motion with respect to humeral elevation;
b) full body inertial parameters for dynamic analyses;
c) neck kinematics from Vasavada Head&Neck model
d) optimised neck muscle parameters representative of a healthy subject's neck strength.

2) THE RUGBY MODEL: this is rugby-specify version of the MASI, and was created to estimate cervical spine load in rugby activities and other sports impacts involving upper body contacts. It includes the same characteristics of the MASI model, but the inertial properties were changed and informed by a DEXA scan of a front row rugby player;

The previous model versions can be used for inverse analysis and simulations in order to estimate cervical spine internal loading during non-injurious scenarios.

3) THE RUGBY MODEL + IMPACT SPECIFIC BUSHING PARAMETERS: This updated version of The Rugby Model includes viscoelastic bushing elements implemented at the C2-C3 to C5-C6 joints validated for axial impacts (Silvestros et al., 2019) [10.1371/journal.pone.0216663]. This model can be used for forward simulation to explore cervical spine loading and injury mechanisms doing injurious events.

4) THE RUGBY MODEL + MRI-informed MUSCLE PARAMETERS: This updated version of The Rugby Model includes wrapping surfaces and updated muscle parameters, and can be used to calculate muscle lengths and moment arms, as well as the forces and moments around the cervical spine during non-injurious scenarios.


Provides the MASI and Rugby Model (.osim) file that can be used in OpenSim.

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Related Projects

The project owner recommends the following other projects:

Head and Neck Musculoskeletal Biomechanics

Full body model for examination of head and neck movement