This study aims to propose a new optimization framework for solving spine kinematics based on skin-mounted markers and estimate subject-specific mechanical properties of the intervertebral joints.

The proposed dynamic optimization framework aimed to solve spine kinematics based on 3D skin-marker positions while simultaneously calibrating spine stiffness. Previously used methods and models for solving spine kinematics are commonly static-based and are constrained with strict kinematics bounds. Our proposed optimization approach enforces dynamic consistency in the entire skeletal system and over the entire time-trajectories, as well as the subject-specific nonlinear properties of joint stiffness. Thereby the approach prevents unrealistic joint motions and kinematic inconsistencies caused by uncertainties in body segment parameters and experimental measurement errors.

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