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Rajagopal, Apoorva, et al. "Full-Body Musculoskeletal Model for Muscle-Driven Simulation of Human Gait." IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 63.10 (2016): 2068-2079. (2016)
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Objective: Musculoskeletal models provide a non-invasive means to study human movement and predict the effects of interventions on gait. Our goal was to create an open-source, three-dimensional musculoskeletal model with high-fidelity representations of the lower limb musculature of healthy young individuals that can be used to generate accurate simulations of gait. Methods: Our model includes bony geometry for the full body, 37 degrees of freedom to define joint kinematics, Hill-type models of 80 muscle-tendon units actuating the lower limbs, and 17 ideal torque actuators driving the upper body. The model’s musculotendon parameters are derived from previous anatomical measurements of 21 cadaver specimens and magnetic resonance images of 24 young healthy subjects. We tested the model by evaluating its computational time and accuracy of simulations of healthy walking and running. Results: Generating muscle-driven simulations of normal walking and running took approximately 10 minutes on a typical desktop computer. The differences between our muscle-generated and inverse dynamics joint moments were within 3% (RMSE) of the peak inverse dynamics joint moments in both walking and running, and our simulated muscle activity showed qualitative agreement with salient features from experimental electromyography data. Conclusion: These results suggest that our model is suitable for generating muscle-driven simulations of healthy gait. We encourage other researchers to further validate and apply the model to study other motions of the lower-extremity. Significance: The model is implemented in the open source software platform OpenSim. The model and data used to create and test the simulations are freely available at https://simtk.org/home/full_body/, allowing others to reproduce these results and create their own simulations.

Full body musculoskeletal model with muscle-actuated lower extremity and torque-actuated torso/upper extremity for use in dynamic simulations of human movement.

License: Full Body Model, Full Body Model w/Sample Sim.

Our paper describes a full body OpenSim model with musculotendon parameters derived from experimental measurements of 21 cadaver lower limbs and magnetic resonance images of 24 young adult subjects. Our model is derived from the lower body model published by Arnold et al. (2010) and the tracking upper body by Hamner et al. (2013), but updates the muscle force distribution to reflect those of a young, healthy population, includes a new knee model to accurately represent internal forces, and simplified muscle wrapping surfaces to increase computation speed in CMC and other muscle-driven simulations.


The OpenSim model file is provided, along with data and setup files to produce a dynamic muscle-driven simulation of human walking and running. The model, data, and setup files will allow for reproduction of Figures 4 and 5 in the associated publication. All simulations for the publication were performed in OpenSim 3.3.

The running experimental data reproduced here were collected in a previous study by Hamner et al (https://simtk.org/home/nmbl_running). The walking data is described in our associated publication.

More information about OpenSim is available at its homepage (opensim.stanford.edu) and its simtk.org project page (https://simtk.org/home/opensim).

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