Simulation of high flexion tasks such as squatting is hindered through invalid moment length estimation when using generic musculoskeletal models. The purpose of this study was to apply wrapping surfaces at the hip joint to allow it to simulate movements that involve substantial hip flexion (e.g. deep squatting).
This customized musculoskeletal is suitable for analysis with up to 138 degrees of hip flexion and 145 degrees of knee flexion and was based on the previously published model by Rajagopal et al. (2016) and Lai et al. (2017).
Four wrapping surfaces were updated:
Three wrapping surfaces were implemented: