In this work, a nonlinear strain rate dependent plugin developed for the OpenSim® platform was used to estimate the instantaneous strain rate (ISR) and the forces on the ACL’s anteromedial (aACL) and posterolateral (pACL) bundles during walking and sud
In this work, a nonlinear strain rate dependent plugin developed for the OpenSim® platform was used to estimate the instantaneous strain rate (ISR) and the forces on the ACL’s anteromedial (aACL) and posterolateral (pACL) bundles during walking and sudden change of direction of running termed as ‘plant-and-cut’ (PC). The authors obtained the kinematics data for walking via optical motion capture. PC movements, along with running kinematics, were obtained from the literature. A nonlinear plugin developed for ligaments was interfaced with the OpenSim® platform to simulate walking and PC motions with a flexed knee and an extended knee. PC phase is sandwiched between an approach phase and take-off phase and was studied at various event velocities (1.8, 3, and 4.2 m s−1), and angles of PC (23°, 34°, and 45°) as encountered in adult ball games. In both cases of PC-with-extended knee and PC-with-flexed-knee, the maximum forces on both the ACL bundles were observed after the take-off phase. A maximum force of ~ 35 N kg−1 of body weight (BW) was observed on aACL after the take-off phase for an event velocity of 4.2 m s−1. In the posterolateral bundle (pACL), the maximum forces (~ 40 N kg−1 of BW) were observed towards the end of the mid-swing phase (after the take-off phase) for the various combinations of the parameters studied. The forces observed in the simulation of PC-with-flexed-knee and PC-with-extended-knee have resulted in magnitude higher than sustainable by the adults. This study is novel in attempting to incorporate differing rates of strain that have been shown to alter soft tissue properties into the OpenSim® musculoskeletal model. The proposed model can be used by researchers to predict the forces during various kinematic activities for other soft tissues.